Blood: relaxed, playful (sanguine) personality Slide 6 Constitutional Theory William Sheldon: body type related to personality type 1. Endomorphic: soft and round Slide 7 Constitutional Theory 3 Personality Types 1.
Slide 1 Personality Slide 2 Personality Defined Individual’s characteristic manner of interacting with the world, and other people in particular Person’s unique pattern of thoughts, feelings, behaviors, that persist over time and across situations Slide 3 Trait Theories TRAIT: relatively stable disposition to behave a certain way Characteristics or factors on which individuals differ State vs. Trait Traits triggered by environmental cues which elicit behavior Traits are dimensional, not categorical Slide 4 Trait Theories Trait theories: specify a manageable set of distinct personality dimensions that summarize fundamental differences between people Focus on describing personality Slide 5 Hippocrates’ Humors 1. Introversion – Extroversion Tendency to avoid or seek excitement Extroverts = sociable, adventurous Introverts = unsociable, introspective 2. Agreeableness High scorers: accomodating, genial, understanding, leniant, courteous, flexible, affectionate Low scorers: antagonistic, unsympathetic, demanding, irritable, distrustful, stubborn Slide 18 5. Tense - Relaxed Slide 11 Hans Eysenck (1952) 2 basic personality traits 1. Openness High scorers: introspective, deep, insightful, intelligent, creative, curious Low scorers: shallow, unimaginative, unobservant, ignorant Slide 17 4.They may have had parents who were critical, played favorites, or were unavailable or inattentive to their emotional needs.
This model does not take into account the fact that humans are inherently social beings and that connection and cooperation with larger social groups can increase our personal and environmental resources.This results in anxiety and vigilance around social status and performance.They have to keep comparing themselves to others to make sure they are measuring up and haven't fallen behind.Some people have a model of relationships that is based on scarce resources.In other words, if you get something, there is less left for me. Nurture Heritability estimate for monozygotic twins =.50 (50% of variability) Dyzygotic twins no more similar than unrelated individuals University of Minnesota studies Slide 26 Heritability of Traits Traditionalism – measure of conservative values (.60) Opposition to the death penalty (.50) Genetic predispositions influence attitudes individual attends to and adopts Slide 27 Environmental Influences Not unimportant, but less important than assumed 2 kids raised in same environment will experience that environment very differently Scarr (1981) – compared non-twin adopted kids with (a) bio sibs and (b) adoptive sibs Bio siblings more similar than adopted No more similar to adoptive sibs than strangers Slide 28 Personality as mental processes 1 Psychodynamic 2 Social cognitive 3 Humanistic Slide 29 Psychodynamic Theories Emphasize the interplay of mental forces a people are often unconscious of their motives b processes called defense mechanisms work to keep unacceptable drives/urges out of consciousness Personality differences lie in unconscious motives & how they are ultimately manifested Slide 30 Psychodynamic Theories Freud - to understand patient’s problems/personality, must learn about content of unconscious Conscious thought a poor reflection of true wants, needs, desires unconscious “leaks” (Freudian slips, dreams, free associations) Slide 31 Psychodynamic Theories Drives equivalent to physical forms of energy build up, must be released to function in society, must learn to direct sexual/aggressive drives in acceptable ways Defense mechanisms serve to reduce anxiety by keeping unacceptable drives out of consciousness Slide 32 Defense mechanisms Repression: anxiety-produc9ing thoughts pushed and kept out of consciousness “I don’t remember much about my childhood” repression dams up mental energy “leaks” are dealt with via other defense mechanisms Slide 33 Defense mechanisms Displacement: unconscious wish/drive that would be unacceptable to conscious mind is redirected toward acceptable alternative breast feeding -- cigarette smoking, eating Sublimation: channeling one’s energies towards behaviors valued by society E.g., corporate killers, surgeons Slide 34 Defense mechanisms Reaction formation: turning a frightening wish into its safer opposite Norman Bates - Hate Mom vs.