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It mentions the following periods to indicate how long ago coal was formed: Carboniferous followed by 359,200,000 - 326,400,000 years ago Dinantian series or epoch from the Lower Carboniferous system in Europe 326,400,000 to 313,400,000 years ago Namurian stage in the regional stratigraphy of northwest Europe are found - Silicious Grit, providing stone for building and millstones - Shale - then lime-stone and toadstone alternately.The veins of metallic ores appeared in the limestone.4,540,000,000 (4.54 billion) years ago Formation of planet Earth - Usher's date was ).

) 13,800,000,000 (13.8 billion) years ago The creation of the universe according to present estimates of "big bang" - "Stephen Hawkings and others...

estimate between 18 and 11 billion with 13.8 being the closest estimation".

Galena can contain minor amounts of antimony, arsenic, bismuth, cadmium, copper, silver, and zinc See and stalagmites.

Encountering impermeable strata (such as toadstone) it forms underground lakes in the limestone which overflow to the surface as natural springs (a resurgence).

writes of fine-grained greenish sandstones deposited in freshwater in which land plant fossils are well preserved.

"Among the most attractive of these" tree-fern once called Cyelopteris (Round-leaved Fern), re named Palasopteris Hibernicus (Primitive Irish Fern). It was the "monarch of the primeval forests" whose "graceful fronds bent over the clear waters of a lake".

He began to do this in 1866 in the General Morphology. about 419,2000,000 to 393,300,000 years ago Early Devonian The vegetation of the early Devonian consisted primarily of small plants, the tallest being only a meter tall.

By the end of the Devonian, "The earth's atmosphere was changing rapidly, going from perhaps 10 percent to 1 percent CO2 and from about 5 percent to 20 percent oxygen over a 50- million year period in the (late) Devonian period.

They said "the epithet carboniferous is of obvious application to this series".

Henry Shaler Williams (1891) proposed Pennine System as the name for the Carboniferous.

The reference relates to Multicellular filaments from arctic Canada identified as a red algae Bangiomorpha pubescens. The curtain rises on a drama in the sea that has already begun, and has been going on for some time". London, Published by James Reynolds 174 Strand, 20t.10.1849. The first of these began about 443 million years ago.