He signed the Instrument of Accession, ceding Kashmir to India on October 26.Indian and Pakistani forces thus fought their first war over Kashmir in 1947-48.Zulfikar Ali Bhutto was overthrown and hanged in 1977; Pakistan reverted to military dictatorship under Gen Zia ul Haq.
Fighting broke out again in 1965, but a ceasefire was established that September.
Indian Prime Minister, Lal Bhadur Shastri, and Pakistani President, M Ayub Khan, signed the Tashkent agreement on January 1, 1966.
On January 1, 1949, a ceasefire was agreed, with 65 per cent of the territory under Indian control and the remainder with Pakistan.
The ceasefire was intended to be temporary but the Line of Control remains the de facto border between the two countries.
But his hopes of remaining independent were dashed in October 1947, as Pakistan sent in Muslim tribesmen who were knocking at the gates of the capital Srinagar.
Hari Singh appealed to the Indian government for military assistance and fled to India. The partition of the Indian sub-continent along religious lines led to the formation of India and Pakistan.However, there remained the problem of over 650 states, run by princes, existing within the two newly independent countries.In 1972 Indira Gandhi, the Indian prime minister, and Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, her Pakistani opposite number (and father of Benazir Bhutto, a later Pakistani premier), signed the Simla Agreement, which reiterated the promises made in Tashkent.The two sides once again agreed to resolve the issue peacefully, as domestic issues dominated.Two weeks later, the Indian army marched into Dhaka and the Pakistanis surrendered.