During the War of 1812, Muhammad and the eighty Muslim men under his leadership protected their master's Sapelo Island property from a British attack.In 1829, Bilali authored a thirteen-page Arabic Risala on Islamic beliefs and the rules for ablution, morning prayer, and the calls to prayer.Bilali "Ben Ali" Muhammad was a Fula Muslim from Timbo, Futa-Jallon, in present-day Guinea-Conakry, who arrived at Sapelo Island during 1803.
He also suggests many non-Muslim slaves were acquainted with some tenets of Islam, due to Muslim trading and proselytizing activities.
Some newly arrived Muslim slaves assembled for communal salat (prayers).
He and four survivors subsequently traveled through much of the American southwest and the Mexican interior before reaching Mexico City.
"Muslims' presence [in the United States] is affirmed in documents dated more than a century before religious liberty became the law of the land, as in a Virginia statute of 1682 which referred to 'negroes, moores, molatoes, and others, born of and in heathenish, idollatrous, pagan, and Mahometan parentage and country' who 'heretofore and hereafter may be purchased, procured, or otherwise obteigned, as slaves.'" Records from the American Revolutionary War indicate that at least a few likely Muslims fought on the American side.
Alexander Russell Webb is considered by historians to be the earliest prominent Anglo-American convert to Islam in 1888.
In 1893, he was the sole representative of Islam at the first Parliament of the World's Religions.Known as the Bilali Document, it is currently housed at the University of Georgia in Athens.Between 17, over a hundred American sailors were held for ransom in Algiers.He was later granted a transfer to a military hospital, where he gained some knowledge of medicine.His Army records state that he died in Brownsville, Tennessee, in 1882.Several wrote captivity narratives of their experiences that gave most Americans their first view of the Arab World and Muslim ways, and newspapers often commented on them. Royall Tyler wrote The Algerine Captive (1797), an early American novel depicting the life of an American doctor employed in the slave trade who himself is captured and enslaved by Barbary pirates.