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His efforts were frustrated by political turmoil and a devastating drought between 19, Opposition to the corrupt and dictatorial regime of General Moussa Traoré grew during the 1980s.

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), is a landlocked country in West Africa, a region geologically identified with the West African Craton. Mali consists of eight regions and its borders on the north reach deep into the middle of the Sahara Desert, while the country's southern part, where the majority of inhabitants live, features the Niger and Senegal rivers.

Mali is the eighth-largest country in Africa, with an area of just over 1,240,000 square kilometres (480,000 sq mi). The country's economy centers on agriculture and fishing.

In the late 19th century, during the Scramble for Africa, France seized control of Mali, making it a part of French Sudan.

French Sudan (then known as the Sudanese Republic) joined with Senegal in 1959, achieving independence in 1960 as the Mali Federation.

On 11 January 2013, the French Armed Forces intervened at the request of the interim government.

On 30 January, the coordinated advance of the French and Malian troops claimed to have retaken the last remaining Islamist stronghold of Kidal, which was also the last of three northern provincial capitals.In Bamako, in response to mass demonstrations organized by university students and later joined by trade unionists and others, soldiers opened fire indiscriminately on the nonviolent demonstrators. Barricades as well as roadblocks were erected and Traoré declared a state of emergency and imposed a nightly curfew.Despite an estimated loss of 300 lives over the course of four days, nonviolent protesters continued to return to Bamako each day demanding the resignation of the dictatorial president and the implementation of democratic policies.14th-century Moroccan traveler Ibn Battuta reported that the capital of the Mali Empire was called Mali.One Mandinka tradition tells that the legendary first emperor Sundiata Keita changed himself into a hippopotamus upon his death in the Sankarani River, and that it's possible to find villages in the area of this river, termed "old Mali", which have Mali for a name. In old Mali, there is one village called Malika which means “New Mali.”The pages above are from Timbuktu Manuscripts written in Sudani script (a form of Arabic) from the Mali Empire showing established knowledge of astronomy and mathematics.Shortly thereafter, following Senegal's withdrawal from the federation, the Sudanese Republic declared itself the independent Republic of Mali.